People who ate a diet high in nuts and legumes, low-fat dairy, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables and low in red and processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages and sodium were at a significantly lower risk of developing chronic kidney disease over the course of more than two decades, new Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health research suggests.
The diet, known as DASH for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, was designed to help reduce blood pressure, but research has shown it to be effective in preventing a series of other chronic illnesses including cardiovascular disease. The findings, published online Aug. 9 in the American Journal of Kidney Diseases, suggest that kidney disease now can be added to that list.
“In addition to offering other health benefits, consuming a DASH-style diet could help reduce the risk of developing kidney disease,” says study leader Casey M. Rebholz, PhD, MPH, MS, an assistant professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School. “The great thing about this finding is that we aren’t talking about a fad diet. This is something that many physicians already recommend to help prevent chronic disease.”
Researchers estimate kidney disease affects 10 percent of the U.S. population—more than 20 million people. Less than one in five who have it are aware that they do, however.
For their study, the researchers examined records from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, which in 1987 began following a group of 15,792 middle-aged adults from communities in Maryland, North Carolina, Minnesota and Mississippi for more than 20 years. At two early visits, participants filled out a 66-item food frequency questionnaire, which asked how often, on average, the participants consumed each food item in what portion size over the previous year.
The participants were not instructed what to eat, but rather their adherence to a DASH-style diet was later categorized into a score based on low intake of red and processed meat, sweetened beverages and sodium; and high intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and legumes, and low-fat dairy.
The researchers then placed participants into categories based on their consumption of these food items. The DASH diet wasn’t described and studied until the 1990s, while participants were enrolled in the ARIC study in the 1980s.
Meanwhile, over time, researchers determined whether a participant developed kidney disease by determining kidney function via blood tests of glomerular filtration rate, learning about a kidney disease-related hospitalization or death, or finding out about end-stage kidney disease resulting in dialysis or transplant.
The researchers found that participants with the lowest DASH diet scores (those who ate few foods such as fruits, vegetables and nuts, and consumed more red meat and sodium) were 16 percent more likely to develop kidney disease than those with the highest DASH scores (those who ate more of the healthier foods and less of the unhealthy items).
Those who had the highest intake of red and processed meats were at a 22 percent higher risk of developing chronic kidney disease than those with the lowest intake of those foods.
Those with the highest intake of nuts and legumes were at 9 percent lower risk of developing kidney disease than those with the lowest intake.
Learn more about a high blood pressure diet plan, including foods to avoid and foods to eat by visiting the following websites: …
The DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) is a dietary pattern promoted by the U.S.-based National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [part of the National Institutes of Health (“NIH”), an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services] to prevent and control hypertension.
The DASH diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy foods; includes meat, fish, poultry, nuts, and beans; and is limited in sugar-sweetened foods and beverages, red meat, and added fats. In addition to its effect on blood pressure, it is designed to be a well-balanced approach to eating for the general public.
The DASH diet is based on NIH studies that examined three dietary plans and their results. None of the plans were vegetarian, but the DASH plan incorporated more fruits and vegetables, low fat or nonfat dairy, beans, and nuts than the others studied.
The DASH diet reduced systolic blood pressure by 6 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by 3 mm Hg in patients with high normal blood pressure (formerly called “pre-hypertension”).
Those with hypertension dropped by 11 and 6 mm Hg, respectively. These changes in blood pressure occurred with no changes in body weight. The DASH dietary pattern is adjusted based on daily caloric intake ranging from 1,600 to 3,100 dietary calories.
The DASH diet was further tested and developed in the Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial for Heart Health (OmniHeart diet).
“The DASH and DASH-sodium trials demonstrated that a carbohydrate-rich diet that emphasizes fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and that is reduced in saturated fat, total fat, and cholesterol substantially lowered blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
OmniHeart demonstrated that partial replacement of carbohydrate with either protein (about half from plant sources) or with unsaturated fat (mostly monounsaturated fat) can further reduce blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and coronary heart disease risk.”
In January 2016, DASH was named the number 1 for “Best Diets Overall” and “For Healthy Eating”, tied number 2 “For Diabetes”, and ranked number 3 “For Heart Health” (out of 38 diets tested) in the US News & World Report’s annual “Best Diets” rankings.